The World's Freshwater Supplies: Annual Renewable Supplies per Capita
per River Basin
This graphic compares freshwater supplies per capita,
per river basin in 1995 with a projection of freshwater supplies
for the same areas in 2025.
Urban Dilemma: Groundwater Pollution by Canal Seepage in Hat Yai,
|| In areas where surface water is not readily
available (located far away from areas of need), groundwater is the
primary water source. This graphic explains how groundwater in the
city of Hat Yai, Thailand, has been polluted by chloride and potassium
from the city's canals.
Freshwater Stress and Scarcity in Africa by 2025
|| According to Population Action International,
based upon the UN Medium Population Projections of 1998, more than
2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress or scarcity
conditions by 2025. This graphic illustrates projected water stress
and water scarcity for African nations in 2025.
21b. Freshwater Stress
the Tides: Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Water has been associated with conflicts between
several neighbouring countries. This graphic shows how water from
the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is used in Iraq, and that neighbouring
Syria and Turkey influence the flow of this water.
River Fragmentation and Flow Regulation
This graphic shows the number of new dams that were
under construction in 1998. It also indicates the areas which are
most affected by river channel fragmentation and flow regulation,
conditions which result partially from dam construction.
The Shrinking of the Aral Sea: Socio-Economic Impacts
|| Over the past 30 years, the Aral Sea in
the former Soviet Union has shrunk to less than half of its original
size. This graphic shows how the shrinking of the Aral Sea has changed
industries such as fishing and agriculture.
the Aral Sea Disappear Forever? The Last 40 Years and Alternative
|| The demise of the Aral Sea was caused
primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya
rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. This graphic
shows the disappearance of the Aral Sea from 1957 to 2000 and three
possible scenarios showing the relationship between future demand
and future available runoff.
Wetlands to Dry Lands: the Destruction of the Mesopotamian Marshlands
|| The Mesopotamian Marshlands
in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins were devastated by damming
and river channelisation during the late 1980s. This graphic illustrates
the decline in the area's marshlands by comparing the location of
its marshlands and lakes in 1973 and in 2000.
Chronology of Change: Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting
|| Straddling the borders of Chad, Niger
and Cameroon in West Africa, Lake Chad has been a source of freshwater
for irrigation projects in all these countries. This graphic traces
the shrinkage of Lake Chad and changes in vegetation from 1967 to
in Freshwater Species Populations
|| The Freshwater Species Population Index
measures the average change over time in the populations of some 194
species of freshwater birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fish.
Between 1970 and 1999, the Freshwater Species Population Index fell
by nearly 50%, which constitutes a very rapid decline in population
Diversity in Freshwater Systems
|| Although freshwater ecosystems such as
rivers, lakes and wetlands occupy less than 2% of the Earth's total
land surface, they provide a wide range of habitats for a significant
proportion of the world's plant and animal species. This graphic explains
which areas of the world have high and low populations of fish species
and endemic fish.
State of the World's Fisheries Inland and Marine Capture Fishery Trends
|| The harvest of freshwater fish is likely
to increase either through capture fisheries or aquaculture (otherwise
known as 'fish farming'). This graphic shows inland capture fisheries
trends for 1984 to 1997, and illustrates the ratio between the 1998
catch and the maximum recorded catch.